Different Types Of Natural Disasters
On our site, there is a huge amount of information about natural disasters, but today, we decided to remind our readers about all major cataclysms and collected a list of types of natural disasters.
The earthquake opens our first list of natural disaster types. This is an underground shock, which can be felt by a human depending on the power of Earth’s surface fluctuation. The earthquakes are not rare, and they occur daily at different points of the planet. Often the most part of earthquakes occurs at the ocean floor, which allows avoiding catastrophic destructions within densely populated cities.
The earthquakes can be caused both by natural causes and artificial ones, which are caused by people.
Most often, the earthquakes are caused by breaks of tectonic plates and their quick displacement. We will not feel the rupture until the energy formed by the rupture of rocks starts to burst to the surface.
The next in our list of types of natural hazards is a tsunami. Tsunami “attacked” the coasts for many centuries. Only since 1850, they took 420 thousand lives and caused a lot of damage. So how do these monster waves work? The main thing is not to call a tsunami tidal wave. They have nothing to do with ordinary tides.
Tsunamis occur when large underwater earthquakes shake the sea bottom; the stronger the shock, the more powerful the tsunami. The generated waves are separated: a remote tsunami is sent to the open ocean, and a local tsunami is sent to the nearby coast.
The speed of waves depends on the depth of water, but as a rule, waves fly across the ocean at a speed of 650 to 800 km per hour. A deep ocean tsunami will have a wavelength of up to 200 km and an amplitude (the distance from the wave peak to its deepest point) of only about 1 meter. This is why tsunamis are difficult to detect in the open ocean. When a tsunami approaches the shore, the wave shrinks: its speed and length decreases and the amplitude increases very strongly, and then the wave falls to the ground.
Do not underestimate the flood, as this kind of natural disaster is a terrible threat.
Flooding is the flooding of vast areas, which was caused by rising water levels in lakes, rivers, seas after heavy rainfall, snow melting, a break of the dam, which led to water far beyond the shoreline.
Although, in most cases, the population can be warned that a natural disaster is approaching but warnings are often ignored because locals refuse to leave their homes in the hope that the disaster will bypass them. And absolutely in vain: the coming water does not spare anyone and not only destroys buildings (especially those with shallow foundations and those made of wood) but often leads to human casualties.
Speaking about the causes of floods, hydrologists highlight the following factors:
- Prolonged rainfall – flooding of this type occurs only in humid areas, which are characterized by high rainfall.
- Snow melting – the cause of the flooding is the intensive melting of snow cover, when the water entering the ground and quickly direct to nearby rivers, dramatically increasing the amount of water in them.
- Tsunami – the floods that bring a tsunami with them, most often become catastrophic, often flooding the entire coast and going deep down to four kilometers.
- Elevation of the bottom – any river accumulates deposits over time in places of folds, which are the causes of flooding. The depth of the river in these places is decreasing, but the flow is expanding, flooding the coastal strip.